- Rust Issues: Yellow rust is the primary constraint. Epidemics occured in 2010. Aggressive races with Yr27+ virulence were implicated in the epidemics.
- Ug99 Status: No Ug99 lineage races have been detected in Iraq.
Rust surveys undertaken in Azerbaijan by Konul Aslanova and colleagues from the Azerbaijan Agricultural Research Institute of Crop Husbandry in May/June 2015. Of the 11 widely dispersed sites surveyed, stem rust was observed at 6 sites (55%). High or moderate severity of stem rust was observed at all these sites, with both bread and durum wheat infected. Stem rust incidence and severity was highest in the Jalilabad area in the south-east Caspian Sea region of Azerbaijan, close to the Iranian border. Samples are currently undergoing race analysis and the current race(s) are unknown. In previous years the Digalu race (TKTTF) has been reported from Azerbaijan.
Rust surveys undertaken by Dr Emad Al-Maaroof and colleagues from Suleimaniyah University, Iraq in April/May 2016 covered 89 fields in Central and North-east Iraq. In the North-East – the Suleimanyah, Kirkuk, Erbil region – stem rust was detected in 40 fields, with high or moderate severity at most sites. The durum variety Adana-99 was most severely affected. Samples are currently undergoing race analysis and the current race(s) are unknown. In previous years the Digalu race (TKTTF) has been reported from Iraq.
These surveys combined indicate the potential increasing presence of stem rust in the region.
Extensive wheat rust surveys were undertaken throughout the wheat growing regions of Iraq during May 2011. A total of 344 sites were surveyed using standard BGRI survey methodology. Yellow rust dominated the surveys, being recorded at 96 of the sites visited. The disease was widely distributed, but highest levels of incidence and severity were recorded in the North-eastern areas adjacent to the Iranian border. A total of 42 sites had moderate or high (>20%) severity levels, virtually all of which were clustered together in the North-eastern region.
Leaf rust was also widespread, being recorded at 40 of the sites visited. However, only low or moderate levels of disease severity were recorded.
Stem rust was recorded at a single site near Mosul, with low incidence and severity reported.
Extensive wheat rust surveys were undertaken throughout the wheat growing regions of Iraq during April to June 2010. A total of 218 sites were surveyed using standard BGRI survey methodology. Conditions in 2010 were extremely suitable for rust development. Yellow rust was observed in nearly 70% of the fields visited (n= 149) and a large proportion of these fields (n=89) had disease severity greater than 20%. All the areas surveyed were affected by the disease.
Leaf rust was also widespread, being recorded at 84 of the sites visited. Most reports of leaf rust came from the Central and Southern areas of the country. Moderate severity (20-40%) of leaf rust was reported from nearly half the sites where leaf rust was present.
Stem rust was recorded at 45 of the sites visited. Most reports were clustered around Erbil in the North-east. Virtually all the records related to low severity (<20%) of disease. Which pathotypes were present is currently unknown.
Field surveys undertaken in the main wheat growing governorates in Iraq during March-April 2010 did not detect any stem rust. A total of 18 farmer field sites distributed throughout the country were surveyed. Stem rust was not recorded at any of the survey sites.